Ligament of the knee perform the role of a fixator of the tibia to the femur. As a result of the gap is a violation of the elasticity and exact location of structures of the joint, and the motion in it becomes chaotic.
Depending on the location of the injury there are the following types of breaks:
Depending on the amount of damage to the fibers there are three degrees of severity of damage:
Cause of ligament rupture is trauma. The gap one way or another ligament of the knee triggered by a certain type of movement, which was unacceptable by force or wrong:
In severe injuries can occur rupture of several ligaments. In such cases there is intra-articular hemorrhage and a patient needs a longer treatment and rehabilitation.
The main symptoms of torn ligaments:
Ruptures cruciate ligaments are accompanied by more severe symptoms: intense pain, restriction of mobility, discomfort and, in some cases, accumulation of blood in the joint cavity (hemarthrosis a). Damage to the lateral ligaments of the clinical picture is not so expressed, but also is manifested by pain, swelling and impaired movement.
Symptoms of torn ligaments of the knee joint itself can't be eliminated without proper treatment. Subsequently, such patients in the joint may appear fibrous deposits that will be on life-to make themselves known discomfort sensations.
If you suspect a torn ligament, you must immediately take a number of actions:
After examination of the patient to confirm the diagnosis "rupture of the ligaments of the knee joint", the doctor may prescribe such additional methods of examination:
These techniques allow us to accurately determine the extent of ligament damage and to identify possible associated injuries of the joints (sprains, fractures, etc.). Based on these data the doctor can make a plan for further treatment of the patient.
Treatment of torn ligaments of the knee joint depends on the degree of damage. This can be used by conservative or surgical methods.
In most cases, the treatment of ligament rupture of the knee joint consists of the following activities:
In the complete rupture of the ligament or the ineffectiveness of the above methods of conservative therapy the patient may be surgery. In most cases, it is a little invasive, running through two small incisions using special endoscopic equipment (arthroscopy). Sometimes you may need to replace the torn ligament in the transplanted or synthetic tendons.
Such treatments are applied when gaps I-II degree. To eliminate the signs of inflammation, swelling and pain you can apply physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compresses with drugs, ointments and massage.
The period of restoration of lost functions of ligaments is 1.5-2 months. The duration of rehabilitation depends on the patient's age, the regularity of treatment and the individual characteristics of the tissues of the body.
Surgery usually is indicated for tears of the III degree and the complete separation of the ligament from the tibia. Surgical treatment depends on the Statute of limitations damage.
When you run the intervention for 3 weeks after the rupture can be sutured ligaments. In some cases, the affected ligament significantly disintegrate the fibers and their compaction use method of strengthening with fascia or tendon from nearby muscles. In such cases, the duration of treatment and rehabilitation is increasing and there is a risk of infection in the joint.
If surgery is performed after 3 weeks and more, the ends of the torn lateral ligaments it is impossible to bring together for crosslinking. During this time they are reduced and significantly away from each other. In such cases, surgeons use the technique on their arthroplasty through a variety of synthetic materials or polyester tape.
The successful treatment and rehabilitation of a patient with ruptures of ligaments of the knee joint depends largely on the timely treatment to the doctor. In many cases, to achieve recovery of the patient is possible with conservative therapy. If necessary, surgical treatment the patient carried out the stitching of the ligaments or replace them with the transplant. Almost all of these interventions are invasive and are performed using the arthroscope. Techniques for these operations are constantly evolving to allow patients to recover in a shorter time.
If you suspect a torn ligament in the knee joint, the patient must provide emergency assistance and to deliver to the medicus-traumatologist. For diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe the implementation of x-ray or other studies (MRI, CT, ultrasound).