The knee joint: diseases and treatment

The joint is a compound bone, whereby the bone skeleton is endowed with flexibility, and has the ability to carry out different movements.

The surface of each bone entering the joint is covered with cartilage and is characterized by articular cavity containing a liquid. The joint also includes joint capsule, synovium, menisci and cartilage structure, mitigating the impact when driving and performing the function of shock absorbers.

The largest joint of the human body is the knee joint. Disease can affect any of its components. The knee joint is formed by the connection of three bones – the femur, tibia and over the knee, which is often called the kneecap. In addition, the knee joint is the most complex structure in the process of flexion, the patella lies in a special cavity formed by the outer and inner ledge of the femur.

Structura genu

The cause of the pain

Pain in the knee joint occurs for a number of reasons, which conditionally can be classified in four groups. These include:

  • A patella fracture, knee injury, osteo handely fracture – i.e. injuries.
  • Diseases of the knee joint, and the pathology of the structure of the knee joint, which include:
  1. gonarthrosis – arthrosis of a knee joint;
  2. pathology of the meniscus – miniscope, a cyst of the meniscus, Baker's cyst;
  3. dysplasia of the bone;
  4. the disease Koenig;
  5. bursitis in the knee joint;
  6. disease Osgood-Shlyattera;
  7. popliteal teknopatia etc.
  • Diseases and injuries of the various body systems that cause pain in the knee joint. Such disorders can be diseases of the spine, injuries of the hip joint.
  • Systemic diseases, such as lupus, Charcot arthropathy, Paget's disease, fibromyalgia. In addition to these system pathologies and pain may result in tuberculosis or Lyme disease – a disorder that klassificeret as an infectious disease of the knee joint.
communis morbis genu

The treatment of almost all diseases of the knee is based on several principles – to relieve the pain, swelling; strengthen bones; to increase physical activity. However, we must remember that it is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, because the diseases of the knee joint caused by the following factors:

  • weight;
  • excessive exercise;
  • diseases of the musculoskeletal system – congenital or acquired during life;
  • professional sports;
  • age (older people often suffer from diseases of the joints);
  • gender (female).

Let us consider the most common diseases of the knee joint.

What is arthritis?

In the first place by the number of cases of disability resulting from diseases of the knee, is known to all disease – arthritis of the knee joint. Pathology affects all elements of the knee – synovial sheath, capsule, cartilage. In the absence of proper treatment, arthritis leads to loss of human ability to move. There are several forms of arthritis:

  • rheumatoid arthritis form of disease, the causes of which are not fully understood;
  • post-traumatic arthritis is a pathology which develops on the background of injuries;
  • reactive arthritis is a disease that occurs due to infection of tissues after suffering poisoning of the body;
  • deformity arthritis – pathology, which is formed on the background of violations and malfunctions of the circulatory system;
  • gouty arthritis is a disease that is caused by disorders in the metabolism in the body.

Also there are primary arthritis, which occurs directly in the joint as a result of injury and secondary arthritis, in which the inflammatory process can start in any tissue of the body, and the flow of lymph or blood gets into the knee joint.

surgery

The symptoms of the disease. Approaches in the treatment of arthritis

In addition to pain during of the disease swelling and redness, sometimes there are purulent processes accompanied by increased body temperature.

Treatment for arthritis is aimed primarily at relief of pain, swelling and recovery of motor ability of the knee joint. These measures are achieved by use of anti-inflammatory agents, warming ointments, and General strengthening medicines.

Good results in therapy provide physiotherapy, massage, LFK. I must say that these measures are prescribed only in the period of remission of the disease, when the body is not observed acute inflammatory processes. In the event of the insolvency of conservative treatment resort to surgery.

In conjunction with conventional methods in the treatment of arthritis and often use the recipes of traditional medicine with the use of plant materials as the basis for poultices, tinctures and ointments.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

Take a look at another fairly common disease of the knee joint – gonarthrosis. This pathology leads to the body's inflammatory process, which is the destruction of cartilage of the knee, accompanied by its deformation and impaired function. Mostly the disease develops in women, especially women of advanced age.

The trigger to a pathology can be related diseases – arthritis, fractures of the joint, tumor processes.

The disease usually slowly. The pathology develops gradually, and at first the main symptom of gonarthrosis can be not only pronounced pain that occurs after dormancy. When moving the pain goes away, but then, after rest, again. As a rule, gonarthrosis in the muscles occur in osteophytes, which motion rubbing of cartilage tissue. Due to friction occurs, the inflammatory process in the knee area, the skin is red, swelling formed.

There are primary and secondary gonarthrosis. The causes of the disease knee joints in the first case has not been fully elucidated, the background for the development of the disease can be not only comorbidities, but also just the elderly person. Secondary gonarthrosis is a consequence of a knee injury or a complication of infectious diseases.

The main method in the diagnosis of gonarthrosis is considered to be an x-ray. Conservative treatment involves pain management, which is used analgesics. To relieve swelling, apply special ointments.

In advanced cases of osteoarthritis, when the cartilage tissue is destroyed, perform surgery – the arthroplasty. In this case, the knee joint is replaced with artificial design, which allows you to almost completely restore motor function.

Miniscope

Miniscope – a disease that develops in physically active people, athletes, and does not depend on age. Favorable conditions for the formation of the pathological process are related diseases – gout, arthritis, diabetes. Often the disease contribute to excess weight and weak knee ligaments.

The meniscus is a special structure which reduces the load on the joint during active movements. There are internal and external meniscus. According to statistics, the first damaged less than a second.

The main symptom of the manifestation of the pathology of patients referred to a click in the knee followed by acute pain. I must say, human physiology is such that at a young age his meniscus saturated with liquid, so miniscope occurs when pain is sharp and strong. In a more advanced age painful weaker. In addition to pain, there is swelling, difficulty in movement.

Effective method of diagnosis when MRI is considered to be a miniscope, during which is determined the degree of damage to the meniscus. When you tear or pinch a sufficient measure is conservative medicine. However, when torn meniscus required surgery.

Periarthritis

Periarthritis – a disease of the ligaments of the knee joint. However, the disease can also affect the muscles and tendons. The cause of the disease in most of whom are the comorbidities imbalance in the endocrine system, repeated hypothermia, problems with blood vessels.

Appears shoulder aching pain, swelling in the knee region, the formation of seals, which cause pain when pressed. Patients report discomfort when walking.

Women have a special form of pathology – shoulder bags goose legs, in which inflamed internal tendons. This does not happen any swelling or deformation of the joint itself. The disease makes itself felt only when wearing high heel shoes or when driving on uneven surfaces.

Periarthritis – a disease of the knee, treatment is effective only when the condition detect it at an early stage.

To achieve in therapy, a positive result are advised to minimize physical activity, get plenty of rest. To help stop the pain non-steroidal drugs , physiotherapy.

Tendonitis of the knee

Ankle tendinitis is a disease in which inflamed tissue of the tendons at their point of attachment to the bone. A disease occurs in physically active people, professional athletes as well as children and the elderly.

Tendonitis can occur on one foot or on both simultaneously. In this case, the affected joint often responds to changing weather – there is pain, swelling, creaking with the movement.

Rheumatoid arthritis

The disease can be called leisurely. Rheumatoid arthritis does not occur spontaneously, a few days or weeks, and develops gradually. It all starts with feeling stiffness in the knee after long periods of rest (e.g. after a night's rest). When the weather changes can appear pain that affect the knee joint. Of these diseases occur in several stages. For each phase of the disease characterized by its symptoms, but the common manifestation of the disease at all stages of development is the symptom of pain.

Bursitis

Bursitis

Bursitis is inflammatory disease of the synovial Bursa (Bursa). Pathology arises as a result of a knee injury, and at a constant activity of the joint due to heavy physical exertion. Bursitis can be caused by infectious disease. As a result of inflammatory process in the synovial bag, fluid builds up dangerous micro flora. Gradually in the knee joint pain when pressure is applied to the knee area of the person also is experiencing discomfort, a feeling of stiffness when moving. Around the joint formed a significant swelling, the size of which can reach 10 cm.

Patients bursitis celebrate the loss of appetite, malaise, and in some cases may increase body temperature. Symptoms of bursitis are very similar to manifestations of other diseases of the knee joint, particularly arthritis. However, there is one important difference between these two pathologies. If bursitis persists the motor activity and the ability to perform bending and straightening movements.

Gout and Paget's disease

Gout – a disease that occurs as a result of a breach of urinary metabolism in the body and increased blood levels of uric acid. The factors that increase the risk include excessive consumption of fish and meat as well as alcohol.

Gout mostly occurs in men. Disease manifests itself sharply pain, redness of the skin in the region of the knee joint. Muscle knots are formed, representing accumulations of uric acid. Gout is diagnosed through biochemical analysis of blood, as well as with x-rays. During therapy in addition to medications patient is prescribed a special diet (diet is clean foods high in purine), prescribe the physical and emotional rest.

Paget's disease of wrong formation of a bone tissue, resulting in deformed skeleton, the bones become fragile. Pathology often affects the long bones of the lower extremities, causing pain in the knees. The disease in the majority worried of men, particularly the elderly. Diagnosing the disease is difficult, as there are cases when the patient does not notice any manifestations of the disease.

diam sanguis analysis

When the first signs of the disease should not delay going to the specialist, because early diagnosis of the disease is the key to successful recovery.

05.04.2018