How to treat osteoarthritis of various degrees?

Osteoarthritis — a chronic degenerative change of the articular cartilage, which inevitably leads to deformation of bone tissue. Synonyms of osteoarthritis, according to the latest International classification of diseases, 1989, are the terms: osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, deforming osteoarthritis, deforming osteoarthritis, artrose-arthritis. Consider the symptoms and possible treatments of the disease.

arthritis joints

The word "osteoarthritis" — late Latin, having in its composition two Greek roots: osteon — "bone" and arthron "joint", and-osis — ends, indicating chronic, destructive form of the disease, in contrast to the end -itis, speaking about the acute inflammatory process. For this reason, it is important to distinguish arthrosis, or osteoarthritis, arthritis is one the disease is chronic, the other is mostly an acute inflammatory character. However, in practice they may be combined.

In fact arthritis is different from arthritis that the disease covers the whole joint (the joint capsule (capsule) located inside the synovium, subchondral bone, ligaments and periarticular muscles), not just the articular cartilage.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis of the first things that strike the knee joints, then go on the prevalence of hip joints and joints of the thumb in the lower extremities. Less likely to suffer from osteoarthritis of the ankle and distal interphalangeal joints located on the ends of the fingers. Other joints affected by osteoarthritis is extremely rare.

There are four main common symptom of osteoarthritis is:

  1. Pain in the affected joints during movement, but at the beginning of the disease they are poorly expressed, which in turn is the reason why arthritis often start. In the second stage, pain syndrome occurs already at low loads on the affected joints and the pain may even visit in a fixed position. If, in addition to arthritis a person is suffering cardiovascular diseases, the pain may occur during weather changes.
  2. Dry and rough crunch in the affected joints is another evidence of osteoarthritis, it is caused by friction defessi of the articular surfaces, the second and third stages of the crunch becomes clearer and louder. It should be emphasized that the usual, loud crunch in the joints not accompanied by pain, it is absolutely harmless, does not indicate disease and does not lead to it.
  3. A gradual reduction in the amplitude of motion in the affected joints associated with muscle spasms, reduction of the joint space and the appearance of osteophytes (bone spurs, spikes).
  4. The modification of the affected joints, expressed in deformation of articulated bones, in the development of osteophytes and "in abruptis" a large volume of synovial fluid, a pressure on the joint from the inside. The increase in synovial fluid is associated with irritation of bone joint tissues and is called "synovitis".

The main difference between arthritic pain from arthritis pain is that in the first case, pain occurs when driving and mostly in the afternoon, and the second does not depend on the movement and usually appear at night. Arthritis pain is more acute and intense.

The degree of osteoarthritis

In medicine it is accepted to distinguish three degrees (stages) of osteoarthritis:

the degree of osteoarthritis
  • The first stage of osteoarthritis occurs almost asymptomatic, and only occasionally accompanied by slight pain when moving and other loads on the affected joints. Happen pathological changes in the synovial membrane and fluid, the composition of which varies. Muscles weaken, but not modified.
  • The second stage of osteoarthritis is marked by the beginning of the destruction of the joint, osteophytes appear first. The pain is tolerable, but pronounced. Distinctly heard the crunch in the affected joints. Is a disturbance of muscular functions in mind violations of reflex neurotrophic regulation.
  • The third stage arthritis is the most severe when it occurs pathological deformation of the abutment area of the affected joints, changing the axis of the limb. Coarsened joint capsule, ligaments are shortened, which leads to chronic inflammation and pain, resulting in a significant reduction in motor function of the affected joint, inability to perform natural movements. There is a change in the normal connection points of the muscle-tendon complex, deformation of muscles on the type of stretching or contraction. Decreases the ability of muscles to fully contract. Gradually trophic disorders spread from muscles and ligaments of the joint to all tissues of the extremities.

At the end of the third stage of osteoarthritis there is a complete destruction of the joints, accompanied by its complete or partial immobility unnatural mobility — neoarthrosis. Usually, at this stage doctors verdict about the replacement of the damaged joint. For example, osteoarthritis of the hip joint ends of the bone intergrowth surfaces — ankylosing, or snapping of the joint, and it occurs in an unnatural position that violates the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.

Techniques and methods for the treatment of osteoarthritis

There are several principles in the treatment of arthritis, among them:

  • restriction of loads on damaged joints;
  • orthopedic treatment;
  • therapeutic exercise (kinesiology);
  • physiotherapy: hivamat therapy and shock wave therapy, ultrasound, electromagnetic pulse and magnetic therapy;
  • decompression metaepiphysis and intra-articular blockade;
  • pharmacotherapy;
  • thrombocytic-rich plasma (PRP therapy);
  • proper nutrition;
  • the Spa treatment.

The above chart is a classic in the treatment of arthritis, will also focus on pharmacotherapy and diet.

First, what is the purpose of pharmacotherapy is the reduction of pain syndrome and inflammatory processes. Therefore, the doctor immediately after diagnosis assigns the "gold standard" in the treatment of arthritis and arthritis — non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs. As a rule, be administered intravenously or intramuscularly, not to irritate the gastric mucosa and faster to obtain a therapeutic effect. Local application of these funds can be considered only as a Supplement, as the effectiveness of the ointments and gels is extremely low.

The NSAIDs begin with the lowest effective dose, avoiding long-term use. It initially used the most "harmless" drugs. To reduce the risk of damage to the gastric mucosa prescribe omeprazole.

treatment of osteoarthritis

During periods of exacerbation of osteoarthritis using intra-articular corticosteroids hormonal. Also assigned chondroprotectors-substances that help restore cartilage and improve the quality of synovial fluid. They feature a long course admission to first effect. However, if within six months no sign of their impact is not detected, these drugs abolished. Hyaluronic acid, or rather of medicines based on it, are used along with chondroprotectors, as it also is part of the connective tissue, forming a sheath of articular cartilage cells — chondrocytes. Drugs are injected intra-articular. Also may be administered platelet-rich blood plasma of the patient, this procedure is called PRP therapy.

A strict diet, as in gout, during the treatment of osteoarthritis does not exist, for example, there is no need to abandon meat and offal. Especially important are those products, which are dominated by the b vitamins and C. Generous fluid intake is encouraged, but alcohol is absolutely contraindicated.

10.01.2019