Arthritis and osteoarthritis – what's the difference?

Arthritis and osteoarthritis is a disease that has consonance in the title and of the same radius, and both the pathology affects the joints. However, the differences in these illnesses much more than it seems at first glance: the mechanism of development, clinical picture and symptoms, diagnostic criteria, and treatments are quite different on closer examination.

arthritis and arthrosis

The causes of arthritis and osteoarthritis – what's the difference?

The main causes of arthritis are:

  • infection – viral, bacterial agents, fungi can cause inflammation in the articular capsule and the fluid surrounding it;
  • autoimmune disorders;
  • hereditary predisposition to the appearance of the disease;
  • disturbances in the metabolism.

Arthritises are more prone to women 30 years and older, certain varieties of the disease (juvenile form) is found in childhood and adolescence.

The causes of osteoarthritis are:

  1. Over-load, "gerens" joint.
  2. Osteoarthritis is a disease of professional athletes, individuals whose work involves heavy labor (longshoremen, masons), there is often osteoarthritis of the interphalangeal joints in pianists. Intra-articular cartilage under load collapses: first, microcracks, and then deformation progresses.
  3. Injury.
  4. Hypothermia.
  5. Previous arthritis.
  6. Obesity, unbalanced diet.
  7. Metabolic changes in the body (hemochromatosis, gout).
  8. Genetic predisposition.
  9. Intoxication.

Degenerative joint changes are formed in elderly people: are more likely to suffer osteoarthritis women 45-60 years of age. According to some authors, after 60 years, the disease is found in almost 100% of the population.

Classification of arthritis

Depending on the causative agent, the clinical and laboratory picture, the inflammation of the joints is classified into the following main groups.

rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Autoimmune disease in which inflammation develops in the synovial membrane covering the cartilage and the bone.

Unlike osteoarthritis, articular syndrome, typical for this disease, symmetric: the lesion is usually bilateral. Affects mostly the joints of hands, wrist, wrist, elbow, shoulder. But can be involved in the process of inflammation and the major leg joints: knee, hip, and joints of the spine.

The causal factors of the disease are genetic, the patients established genetic predisposition to gero antigens HLA DR1, DR4, DW4. Between the presence of these alleles and the development of the disease a scientifically proven relationship. The role of the carrier of a virus of Epstein-Barr in the emergence of this form of arthritis.

Psoriatic arthritis

Inflammation can occur on the background of already existing disease – psoriasis.

70% of patients with skin psoriatic lesions, there is articular syndrome, have features that distinguish it from other forms of arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Features of lesions of psoriatic arthritis:

  • predominantly affects the distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet;
  • the skin over the joints bluish or purple;
  • deformation of fingers on the type of "tomacula'";
  • negative reactions to a rheumatoid factor";
  • the appearance of pain in the heels.

Patients with psoriasis should be aware of the possibility distribution of disease progression with involvement of joint disease. At the first alarm signals in health — the emergence of General weakness, swelling or pain, such patients should urgently pay a visit to the doctor.

Reactive arthritis

This inflammation in the joint cavity that occurs in patients with current or past gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection, and in the synovial cavity pathogens do not penetrate, causing the arthritis is also called "sterile".

The doctor may suspect the reactive form of the disease if:

  • before the patient is moved urethritis, enterocolitis, conjunctivitis;
  • knee, ankle joints, toes affected asymmetrically;
  • affects the Achilles tendon or plantar fascia;
  • the patient has the HLA-B27 antigen;
  • temperature rises to 38-39 degrees in the acute period of the disease.

Unlike other forms of arthritic conditions and arthrosis, reactive lesions may disappear after 4-6 months, but sometimes, without proper treatment, can become chronic.

reactive arthritis

To date, the reactive group include rheumatoid arthritis caused by beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. The disease debuts in childhood or adolescence. Joint problems occur after 1-2 weeks after suffering angina. For rheumatic articular lesion characterized by pain in large joints (knee, elbow), the volatility of the lesion, the full reversibility of the development of inflammation (unlike osteoarthritis).

Arthritis related to infection

This type of disease include lesions of the joints, in which the correlation with infectious early, and the pathogen penetrates into the synovial cavity (in contrast to reactive losses).

Isolated arthritis:

  1. Bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium, fuzobakterii).
  2. Viral: most often caused by rubella viruses, herpes, hepatitis, HIV, parvoviruses, adenoviruses.
  3. Parasitic: inflammatory changes can be caused by helminths, amoebiasis.

On the infectious nature of the disease would indicate an acute, rapid onset of symptoms of intoxication and a high body temperature, the punctate synovial fluid seminat pathogen.

Classification of osteoarthritis

This pathology indicates that the degenerative processes occurring directly in the cartilage and leads to its destruction, the changes in bone surfaces of joints, their deformation.

Primary osteoarthritis

This form develops in previously healthy cartilage. The major causes of disease are:

  • injury and microfracture of cartilage;
  • the increased mobility of the joint;
  • genetic predisposition.

Predispose to the development of this form of the disease can internal factors:

  • flat, dysplasia, scoliosis of the spine;
  • weight;
  • violation of blood circulation.

Cartilage is unable to withstand the mechanical load that is on it. Its strength may be genetically low in some cases due to hereditary predisposition to osteoarthritis. The consequence of these factors is the formation of cracks in the center of the cartilage surface, loss of elasticity, destruction of the cartilage up to complete disappearance and the exposure of the bone surfaces forming the joint.

The primary form of the disease is classified into local (affects 1-2 joints) and generalized (suffer 3 or more joints).

secondary osteoarthritis

Secondary osteoarthritis

This form of the disease characterized by the destruction of the pre-affected cartilage:

  • injuries;
  • endocrine diseases (diabetes, acromegaly);
  • metabolic changes (hemochromatosis, gout);
  • previous arthritis.

The above pathology creates a "fertile" ground for the formation of the disease: for chronic disorders of cartilage does not receive nutrients, oxygen, not enough copia sanguinis. Cartilage in such conditions ceases to function properly: depleted proteoglycans, dries up, becomes dry and rough, and gradually destroyed.

What is the difference of the symptoms of arthritis and osteoarthritis?

An experienced doctor is already at the stage of medical history, clinical symptoms and complaints may predict disease faced by the patient.

"Business card" of the disease of rheumatoid arthritis is ulnar deviation of fingers and deformity of the type "Swan neck".

The beginning of osteoarthritis is usually gradual, and progressive. The symptoms occur in patients older than 40 years.

With osteoarthritis usually affects the large joints of the lower extremities: hip, knee, and most other joints of the upper limbs suffer from shoulder and distal interphalangeal.

Patients complain of easy crunch, mild aching pain that occurs during prolonged exercise, disappearing at rest. As the worsening process, the pain increases with prolonged standing, climbing stairs.

When you long for osteoarthritis are formed musculoskeletal contractures, ankylosis resulting in limitation and loss of mobility causing disability.

Arthritis Osteoarthritis
The appearance of spontaneous pain, increasing during movement, morning stiffness, peak pain after 3 hours of the night and in the morning The starting character of the pain – the intensity increases when moving toward the end of the day, after relaxing the condition of patients significantly improved, the phenomenon of morning stiffness are absent.
Swelling, swelling, redness of the modified joints – skin over them reddened, crus, hot to the touch. The disease debuts with small joints: affects the hands and feet, wrists There is often a symptom of "jamming": a condition in which spontaneously while driving causing severe pain in the joint, completely preventing movement. These phenomena are caused by fragments of cartilage in joint cavity – a "joint mouse", getting between the articular surfaces, debris provoke intense pain and inhibit movement. This state lasts for about 1 minute, usually patients spontaneously change the body posture, "joint mouse" moves and the pain subsides
The symmetry of the pathological process Crepitus, crepitation in the affected location that occur due to uneven friction of the articular surfaces
The combination of the pain syndrome General symptoms of intoxication: weakness, increased body temperature up to subfebrile (37.5-38 degrees), weight loss, sweating Deformation of joints and limited mobility due to the growth of bone surfaces
Atrophy of Radom located muscles, deformation of joints and lock their motility up to complete ankylosis in the long course of the disease The absence of signs of local inflammation (redness, swelling, none)
Satisfactory condition of the patient
The slow progression of the disease
Fatigue of the muscles in the affected area
the knee joint

Osteoarthritis or arthritis of the knee – what's the difference?

With complaints of knee pain to the doctor treated many people wondering what may be due to deterioration of health? But even before visit to the clinic, knowing the characteristics of symptoms and clinical picture of arthritis and osteoarthritis, the patient may speculate why sore knee joint and how the disease develops.

Of all localizations of osteoarthritis the incidence of knee joint in second place, behind only the hip. Gonarthrosis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease affecting the joints of the knees.

It hurts the knee joint in osteoarthritis?

Pain increasing gradually. Initially in the affected location there is a crunch when moving, then there is aching pain in the knee when walking, climbing or descending the stairs. Alone pain subsides, the patient noted improvement in health after the holidays.

When osteoarthritis knee pain occurs gradually as the cartilage, which is destroyed as a result of illness, has no pain receptors. Pain syndrome is characterized by under exposing the bone surfaces and their friction against each other, the proliferation of osteophytes, in contact with the cartilage fragments in the synovial cavity.

Like a sore knee joint arthritis?

The damage to the knee joint arthritis is a frequent occurrence. The inflammatory process in this pathology accompanied by pain of varying intensity: the pain may be sharp, burning or aching, long.

Knee pain arthritis is accompanied by inflammatory changes in both local and common nature: in the affected area redness of the skin and the temperature rise of the body above them, the skin hot to the touch.

With the progression of pathology of the inflammatory exudate formed, which leads to an increase in joint volume, accompanied by puffiness and swelling.

diagnosis the doctor

To reduce pain patients take a forced position of the limb – the flexion in the knee joint, and if this situation persists for a long time, can be formed flexion contracture.

Pain worse in the morning accompanied by stiffness. During exacerbation of the disease symptoms of intoxication: fever up to 38C, weakness, fatigue, sweating.

The patient should not engage in sui examen and try to diagnose yourself. You should trust your health specialist.

18.12.2018